"Artificial Intelligence for Diffusion MRI-based Tissue Microstructure Estimation in the Human Brain: An Overview"

April 21, 2023

Congratulations to PhD candidate Abrar Faiyaz and Professor Marvin Doyley on the publication of the journal article titled "Artificial intelligence for diffusion MRI-based tissue microstructure estimation in the human brain: an overview." Co-authors include Drs. Giovanni Schifitto and Md Nasir Uddin from the URMC Department of Neurology. This article appears in Frontiers in Neurology. The abstract appears below and more information can be found here.

Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) has made significant advances in the field of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and other neuroimaging modalities. These techniques have been applied to various areas such as image reconstruction, denoising, detecting and removing artifacts, segmentation, tissue microstructure modeling, brain connectivity analysis, and diagnosis support. State-of-the-art AI algorithms have the potential to leverage optimization techniques in dMRI to advance sensitivity and inference through biophysical models. While the use of AI in brain microstructures has the potential to revolutionize the way we study the brain and understand brain disorders, we need to be aware of the pitfalls and emerging best practices that can further advance this field. Additionally, since dMRI scans rely on sampling of the q-space geometry, it leaves room for creativity in data engineering in such a way that it maximizes the prior inference. Utilization of the inherent geometry has been shown to improve general inference quality and might be more reliable in identifying pathological differences. We acknowledge and classify AI-based approaches for dMRI using these unifying characteristics. This article also highlighted and reviewed general practices and pitfalls involving tissue microstructure estimation through data-driven techniques and provided directions for building on them.